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STUDIES AVAILABLE OF GOKSHUR

Sources :- http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov

1.Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

Xu T, Xu Y, Liu Y, Xie S, Si Y, Xu D.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chemistry, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, PR China.

Two new furostanol glycosides, named tribufurosides I (1) J (2), were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Its structures were established as 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-12-one-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (2).

PMID: 19442708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

2. [Mechanisms of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris via activating PKCepsilon against myocardial apoptosis induced by oxidative stress]

Wang SS, Ji YS, Li H, Yang SJ.

Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

This study is to observe the effect of gross saponins of Tribulus terrestris (GSTT) on protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) and apoptosis-associated protein in the apoptosis of cultured cardiocyte apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to explore the mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis. Primary cardiocytes were isolated and cultured. Myocardial apoptosis was induced by H2O2 and analyzed with flow cytometry. Protein content of phospho-PKCepsilon, Bcl-2, and Bax were detected with Western blotting analysis. Cleaved caspase-3 protein content was determined with immunocytochemical technique. After the pretreatment of 100 mg x L(-1) GSTT, compared with H2O2 group, GSTT could not only decrease the apoptotic percentage in cardiocytes damaged by H2O2 (P < 0.01), but also reduce protein contents of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01), and increase protein content of phospho-PKCepsilon and Bcl-2 significantly (P < 0.01). PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (Che) could prevent partly the effect of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Mechanisms of GSTT against myocardial apoptosis might be associated with inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway after PKCepsilon activation.

PMID: 19408681 [PubMed - in process]

 
 

3. Changes in the brain cortex of rabbits on a cholesterol-rich diet following supplementation with a herbal extract of Tribulus terrestris.

Berkman Z, Tanriover G, Acar G, Sati L, Altug T, Demir R.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Extracts of the medicinal herb Tribulus terrestris (TT) are used for treating various diseases. The saponins, a component of TT, play a role in regulating blood pressure and in treatment of hyperlipidemia. The aim of the study was to investigate the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations in the cerebral cortex of experimental rabbits on a cholesterol rich diet treated with TT. The rabbits were divided into three groups and followed for 12 weeks as control group (CG); experimental group I (EG-I), fed with a cholesterol-rich diet; experimental group II (EG-II), treated with an extract of TT (5 mg/kg/day) after a cholesterol-rich diet of 4 weeks. In EG-I there were ultrastructural changes, including mitochondrial degeneration, increased lipofuscin pigments, myelin sheath damage with axoplasmic shrinkage and electron dense granules in the neurovascular unit. The number of synapses apparently decreased in both experimental groups. Administration of TT extract in EG-II led to marked ultrastructural alterations in neurons, including decreased mitochondrial degeneration (P<0.001) and extensive oedematous areas in the neurovascular unit. However, in EG-II, lamellar myelin, axonal structures and mitochondria were well protected. These alterations possibly indicate that saponins have an effect on the neurons either directly or by its conversion to steroidal saponins. Therefore, these findings add further evidence supporting the protective claims of TT in cerebral architecture in dietary induced hyperlipidemia.

PMID: 19337967 [PubMed - in process]

 

 

4. Influence of Tribulus terrestris extract on lipid profile and endothelial structure in developing atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits on a high-cholesterol diet.

Altug Tuncer M, Yaymaci B, Sati L, Cayli S, Acar G, Altug T, Demir R.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Kosuyolu State Hospital Kartal, Istanbul, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to investigate the pleotropic effects of an extract of a traditional herb, Tribulus terrestris (TT), on the lipid profile and vascular endothelium of the abdominal aorta in New Zealand rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups (n=6 for each). One experimental group (EG-I) was given a cholesterol-rich diet, a second experimental group (EG-II) was treated with TT following a cholesterol-rich diet, and a control group (CG) was fed a standard diet. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and then at weeks 4 and 12 to determine total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipid-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipid-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels. Tissues were collected from the abdominal aorta for immunohistochemistry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In EG-II, the serum lipid profile was significantly lower than that of EG-I at week 12 with a reduction of TC: 65%; LDL-C: 66%; HDL-C: 64%; TG: 55%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial damage was more prominent in EG-I compared to EG-II. The ruptured endothelial linings and damaged cellular surfaces increased in EG-I compared to EG-II. Our data indicate that dietary intake of TT can significantly lower serum lipid profiles, decrease endothelial cellular surface damage and rupture and may partially repair the endothelial dysfunction resulting from hyperlipidemia.

PMID: 19269683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

5. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

Su L, Feng SG, Qiao L, Zhou YZ, Yang RP, Pei YH.

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Two new steroidal saponins and two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic analysis and chemical reaction as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5 alpha-furostan-12-one-3beta,22 alpha,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5 alpha-furostan-22-methoxy-2 alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-gentiobioside (3), and isorhamnetin-3-gentiobioside (4).

PMID: 19177235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

6. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants.

Sengul M, Yildiz H, Gungor N, Cetin B, Eser Z, Ercisli S.

Department of Food Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. memnunese@hotmail.com

Crude extracts from Inula aucherana, Fumaria officinalis, Crocus sativus, Vicum album, Tribulus terestris, Polygonatum multiflorum, Alkanna tinctoria and Taraxacum officinale were screened for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Total phenolic content of extracts from these plants were also determined. beta-carotene bleaching assay and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were used to determine total antioxidant activity and total phenols of plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was determined by using disk diffusion assay. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content varied among plants used and Viscum album and Crocus sativus had the highest antioxidant (82.23%) and total phenolic content (42.29 mgGAE/g DW), respectively. The methanol extracts from Vicum album and Alkanna tinctoria showed antimicrobial activity against 9 out of 32 microorganisms, however extract from Inula aucherana showed antimicrobial activity against 15 out of 32 microorganisms. The results provided evidence that the studied plant might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

PMID: 19168430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

7. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

Su L, Chen G, Feng SG, Wang W, Li ZF, Chen H, Liu YX, Pei YH.

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, No. 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, PR China.

Five new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Their structures were fully established by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-24-one-3beta,23-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (24S,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,24-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (2), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-2alpha,3beta,22alpha,26-tetraol-3-O-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (3), 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-{beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostan-12-one-22-methoxy-3beta,26-diol-3-O-{alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-galactopyranoside} (5). The isolated compounds were evaluated for cytostatic activity against HL-60 cells.

PMID: 19152803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

8. Composition and seasonality of diet in wild Hamadryas baboons: preliminary findings from Filoha.

Swedell L, Hailemeskel G, Schreier A.

Queens College - CUNY, Flushing, NY 11367-1597, USA. LSwedell@qc.edu

Here we report the first year-round quantitative data on dietary composition and seasonality in wild hamadryas baboons. Study subjects were adult male members of band 3 at the Filoha field site in central lowland Ethiopia. Data collection consisted of 10-min focal samples during all-day follows 4-6 days per month over the course of 1 year. The two largest contributors to the diet were Hyphaene thebaica and Acacia senegal, and these were the only plant species found in the diet during every month of the year. Other relatively major contributors to the diet, such as Cyperus grandibulbosus, Seddera bagshawei, Tribulus cistoides and Typhalatifolia, showed a seasonal pattern. Fewer plant species were consumed during the dry months of the year compared to the wet months. During the hottest and driest months of the year, study subjects subsisted almost exclusively on H. thebaica, A. senegal, C. grandibulbosus and T.latifolia. Overall, these patterns suggest that this population of hamadryas baboons spends less time feeding and is able to subsist on a narrower array of plant foods compared to other baboons. This pattern may be driven by the presence at Filoha of the doum palm (H. thebaica), a high-quality food resource that is consumed year-round. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

PMID: 18931503 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 
 

9. Potent inhibition of human phosphodiesterase-5 by icariin derivatives.

Dell'Agli M, Galli GV, Dal Cero E, Belluti F, Matera R, Zironi E, Pagliuca G, Bosisio E.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy. mario.dellagli@unimi.it

Plant extracts traditionally used for male impotence (Tribulus terrestris, Ferula hermonis, Epimedium brevicornum, Cinnamomum cassia), and the individual compounds cinnamaldehyde, ferutinin, and icariin, were screened against phosphodiesterase-5A1 (PDE5A1) activity. Human recombinant PDE5A1 was used as the enzyme source. Only E. brevicornum extract (80% inhibition at 50 microg/mL) and its active principle icariin (1) (IC50 5.9 microM) were active. To improve its inhibitory activity, 1 was subjected to various structural modifications. Thus, 3,7-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)icaritin (5), where both sugars in 1 were replaced with hydroxyethyl residues, potently inhibited PDE5A1 with an IC50 very close to that of sildenafil (IC50 75 vs 74 nM). Thus, 5 was 80 times more potent than 1, and its selectivity versus phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) was much higher in comparison with sildenafil. The improved pharmacodynamic profile and lack of cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts make compound 5 a promising candidate for further development.

PMID: 18778098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 
 

10. One new cinnamic imide dervative from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris.

Lv AL, Zhang N, Sun MG, Huang YF, Sun Y, Ma HY, Hua HM, Pei YH.

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

One new cinnamic imide derivative, named tribulusimide C (1), was isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris, together with three known compounds, N-p-coumaroyltyramine (2), terrestriamide (3), N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated based on chemical analysis and spectral methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, HR-FAB-MS, EI-MS).

PMID: 18629718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

11.Ayurvedic medicine and renal calculi.

Kieley S, Dwivedi R, Monga M.

Department of Urologic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the supportive evidence for the use of Ayurvedic medicine in the management of existing and recurrent nephrolithiasis. METHOD: Nine Ayurvedic medicines commonly utilized in the management of nephrolithiasis were identified by discussions with Ayurvedic practitioners in India. Mechanistic and clinical studies evaluating the use of these agents were identified using the Medline database and bibliographies suggested by Ayurvedic practitioners. The articles were then critically reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: Four in vitro mechanistic studies, eight animal studies, and seven human trials were identified. Phyllanthus niruri has undergone mechanistic in vitro, animal, and clinical trials that support its impact on calcium oxalate crystallization. Preliminary clinical trials have evaluated the role of Dolichos biflorus and Orthosiphon grandiflorus in the prevention of urolithiasis and fish stone as a method of stone expulsion, yet the treatment effect and mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. CONCLUSION: Ayurvedic medicine holds promise as a complementary approach to the management and prevention of nephrolithiasis. The best studied compound is P. niruri. Further controlled randomized clinical trials are justified to support or refute the potential benefits demonstrated in these initial studies.

PMID: 18620498 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

12. [Study on fitting growth density and best harvest time of Tribulus terrestris]

Han M, Yang LM, Han DY, Yang L.

College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China.

OBJECTIVE: To study the suitable growth density and the optimal harvest time of Tribulus terrestris. METHOD: Four growth densities were set with 60 cm breadth ridge and individual distance of 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm. The yield per individual and per unit area under the different growth densities were determined. Using yam saponin as a standard substance, the total saponin of T. terrestris was determined by UV spectrophotometry. RESULT: The individual yield decreased with the density increase, but the difference between 30 cm and 50 cm individual distance was not substantial. The yield per unit area increased with density increase, and the difference between all densities was significant. The yield peak was in the last ten-day of August. The best leaves area index was 1.4 at the growth peak time. The total saponins content reached peaks respectively in the last ten-day of June and August, but the peak in last ten-day of August was consistent with the one of yield per unit area, and the total ashes content was the lowest at the same time. CONCLUSION: The suitable growth density is 10 cm individual distance on the 60 cm breadth ridge. The optimal harvest time is in the last ten-day of August. The yield per unit area is 1 400 - 2 000 kg x hm(-2).

PMID: 18589769 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

13. [A pharmacognostical study on Nitraria tangutorum]

Wang H, Liu JR, Li P, Cheng YH.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources, Shihezi 832002, China. wh_pha@shzu.edu.cn

OBJECTIVE: To study the pharmacognosy of Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. systematically. METHODS: Macroscopic, microscopic identifications, physicochemical identification and UV spectrometry methods were carried out. RESULTS: The macroscopical, microscopical and physicochemical characteristics of Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. were decribed in details. CONCLUSION: The results can be taken as the reference for identifying the species, analyzing the quality and laying down quality standard of the crude drug.

PMID: 18589744 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

14. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

Xu TH, Xu YJ, Xie SX, Zhao HF, Han D, Li Y, Niu JZ, Xu DM.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chemistry, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Two new furostanol saponins, tribufurosides B (1) and C (2), were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. With the help of chemical and spectral analyses (IR, MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR), the structures of two new furostanol saponins were established as 26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-d-galactopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl(1 --> 2)-beta-d-galactopyranoside (1) and (25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta, 26-diol-26-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2).

PMID: 18464080 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 
 

15. Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.

Saudan C, Baume N, Emery C, Strahm E, Saugy M.

Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, Institut Universitaire de Médecine Légale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Chemin des Croisettes 22, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.

Tribulus terrestris is a nutritional supplement highly debated regarding its physiological and actual effects on the organism. The main claimed effect is an increase of testosterone anabolic and androgenic action through the activation of endogenous testosterone production. Even if this biological pathway is not entirely proven, T. terrestris is regularly used by athletes. Recently, the analysis of two female urine samples by GC/C/IRMS (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry) conclusively revealed the administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursors, even if the testosterone glucuronide/epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio and steroid marker concentrations were below the cut-off values defined by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To argue against this adverse analytical finding, the athletes recognized having used T. terrestris in their diet. In order to test this hypothesis, two female volunteers ingested 500 mg of T. terrestris, three times a day and for two consecutive days. All spot urines were collected during 48 h after the first intake. The (13)C/(12)C ratio of ketosteroids was determined by GC/C/IRMS, the T/E ratio and DHEA concentrations were measured by GC/MS and LH concentrations by radioimmunoassay. None of these parameters revealed a significant variation or increased above the WADA cut-off limits. Hence, the short-term treatment with T. terrestris showed no impact on the endogenous testosterone metabolism of the two subjects.

PMID: 18282674 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

16. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different parts of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iraq.

Al-Bayati FA, Al-Mola HF.

Department of Biology, College of Education, University of Mosul, Mosul-00964, Iraq. firas.bayati@gmail.com

Antimicrobial activity of organic and aqueous extracts from fruits, leaves and roots of Tribulus terrestris L., an Iraqi medicinal plant used as urinary anti-infective in folk medicine, was examined against 11 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using microdilution method in 96 multiwell microtiter plates. All the extracts from the different parts of the plant showed antimicrobial activity against most tested microorganisms. The most active extract against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was ethanol extract from the fruits with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.15 mg/ml against B. subtilis, B. cereus, P. vulgaris and C. diphtheriae. In addition, the same extract from the same plant part demonstrated the strongest antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC value of 0.15 mg/ml.

PMID: 18257138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC2225498

 

17. RAPD Analysis for Determination of Components in Herbal Medicine.

Shinde VM, Dhalwal K, Mahadik KR, Joshi KS, Patwardhan BK.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Erandwane, Pune 411038 and Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India.

In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for determination of the components in an Ayurvedic herbal prescription, Rasayana Churna. One-hundred-and-twenty decamer oligonucleotide primers were screened in the RAPD analysis to identify three Ayurvedic medicines, dried stem of Tinospora cordifolia, dried fruit of Emblica officinalis and dried fruit of Tribulus terestris, the Ayurvedic prescription. Primer OPC-6 simultaneously generated three distinct amplicons, each specific to one component. The marker with 600 bp is specific to Tinospora cordifolia; the marker 500 bp is specific to Emblica officinalis and the remaining marker >1000 bp was present in Tribulus terestris. Presence of three herbal medicines was determined when RAPD reaction with OPC-6 was performed. The technique was proved to contribute to the identification of components in Ayurvedic herbal preparation and thus helping to serve as a complementary tool for quality control.

PMID: 18227927 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2206231

 

 

18. [Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats]

Liu XM, Huang QF, Zhang YL, Lou JL, Liu HS, Zheng H.

Center of Science Experiment, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100078, China.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion (TTLS) on apoptosis in cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. METHODS: Primary culture of rat cortical neurons was performed in vitro. A model of apoptosis of cortical neurons was established by hypoxia and reoxygenation. Hypoxia for 3 h in neural cells was induced with mixture of 95% N(2) and 5% CO(2), and then reoxygenation in neural cells was induced with mixture of 95% O(2) and 5% CO(2) for 12 h. Different concentrations of TTLS were administered to traditional Chinese herbal medicine-treated group separately during hypoxia and reoxygenation. The apoptosis rate was analyzed quantitatively by flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Mitochondria membrane potential was observed by a confocal laser-scanning microscope with JC-1 fluorescence. Caspase-3/7 activity in cytoplasm was measured by fluorescent plate reader. Bax protein expression was observed by immunohistochemical technique. RESULTS: The percentage of apoptosis was significantly increased, mitochondria membrane potential was obviously decreased, fluorescence of caspase-3/7 activity was increased, and Bax protein was abundantly expressed followed by 3 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation (P<0.01). TTLS could inhibit the depression of membrane potential induced by hypoxia and reoxygenation, decrease the activity of caspase-3/7, reduce the expression of Bax protein, and inhibit the apoptosis of the cortical neurons. CONCLUSION: Hypoxia and reoxygenation can induce apoptosis of rat cortical neurons. TTLS can decrease the apoptosis induced by hypoxia and reoxygenation. The mechanism might be related to stabilization of mitochondria membrane potential, inhibition of caspase activity and reduction of Bax protein expression.

PMID: 18184546 [PubMed - in process]

 

19. Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris, a medicinal herb.

Sarwat M, Das S, Srivastava PS.

Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb from samples collected from various geographical regions of India. Six assays each of AFLP and SAMPL markers and 21 each of ISSR and RAPD markers were utilized. AFLP yielded 500 scorable amplified products, of which 82.9% were polymorphic. SAMPL primers amplified 488 bands, 462 being polymorphic (94.7%). The range of amplified bands was 66 [(TC)(8)G + M-CAG] to 98 [(CA)(6)AG + M-CAC] and the percentage polymorphism, 89.9 [from (CT)(4)C (AC)(4)A + M-CTG] to 100 [from (GACA)(4) + M-CTA]. The ISSR primers amplified 239 bands of 0.4-2.5 kb, 73.6% showed polymorphism. The amplified products ranged from 5 to 16 and the percentage polymorphism 40-100. RAPD assays produced 276 bands, of which 163 were polymorphic (59%). Mantel test employed for detection of goodness of fit established cophenetic correlation values above 0.9 for all the four marker systems. The dendrograms and PCA plots derived from the binary data matrices of the four marker systems are highly concordant. High bootstrap values were obtained at major nodes of phenograms through WINBOOT software. The relative efficiency of the four molecular marker systems calculated on the basis of multiplex ratio, marker index and average heterozygosity revealed SAMPL to be the best. Distinct DNA fingerprinting profile, unique to every geographical region could be obtained with all the four molecular marker systems. Clustering can be a good indicator for clear separation of genotypes from different regions in well-defined groups that are supported by high bootstrap values.

PMID: 18074139 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

20. The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction--an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat.

Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119074 Singapore. obgkg@nus.edu.sg <obgkg@nus.edu.sg>

Hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). TT extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg, in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of TT extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate (10mg/kg, subcutaneously; biweekly for 8 weeks) or TT orally (5mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in T (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at 7.5mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both T and DHT were increased compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT (by 30% and 32% at 5 and 10mg/kg) were statistically significant. In castrated rats, increases in T levels by 51% and 25% were observed with T and TT extract respectively that were statistically significant. TT increases some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract. TT may be useful in mild to moderate cases of ED.

PMID: 18068966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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